Original research article
Porto Biomed. J. 2017; 2(1): 23-27 doi: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.pbj.2016.11.002 (Published 27 December 2016)

A transmission electron microscopy study of anticoagulant-induced platelet vesiculation

Bahaa Hadi Almhanawia, *, Bahariah Khalidb, Tengku Azmi Ibrahimc, Eusni Rahayu Mohd Tohita

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Electron Microscopy Unit, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (IBS), University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
*Corresponding author:
Accepted 19 November 2016
abstract
Platelet microparticles (PMPs) are small membrane fragments released from activated platelets in response to various stimuli. PMPs serve as biomarkers for several diseases and conditions and are useful tools for prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic purposes. The objective of our study was to compare the direct effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium citrate anticoagulants on platelet structure and PMP vesiculation using transmission electron microscopy to visualize the morphologic changes in platelets. Micrographs revealed that platelets in the EDTA-anticoagulated tube manifested with significant morphologic changes and induced PMP vesiculation. On the other hand, the sodium citrate-anticoagulated tube showed a normal platelet structure and minor modifications in some cases, with poor indication of PMP vesiculation. In conclusion, EDTA induced platelet activation and PMP vesiculation and represents a major source of artifacts during the pre-analysis steps of PMP vesiculation.
keywords
EDTA; Platelet microparticles; Pre-analytical artifacts; Sodium citrate; Transmission electron microscopy
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